McDowell, Cheryl J. “Promise and Progress: The Development of Health Care in Multnomah County from 1774 to 1988” Multnomah County Department of Human Services Health Division, 1989.

Lansing, Jewel and Leeson, Fred. Multnomah: The Tumultuous Story of Oregon’s Most Populous County. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2012.

Billi Odegaard, director, Multnomah County Health Department 1971-1999

Photos: Courtesy of Multnomah County Archives and Oregon Health & Science University.